VirtualBox Administration Notes

(Note: This post probably won’t be touched again due to my switching to KVM.)

This is a placeholder for some notes about command-line installation and administration of VirtualBox, Oracle’s free virtualization suite. Most tasks can be handled from the VirtualBox GUI, but to work on a terminal-only server, you will need to interact with the VboxManage command line interface.

The VirtualBox end-user documentation is excellent, and most of these notes are taken directly from it unless otherwise noted.

Unfortunately, I don’t have a headless server set up right now. I’ll just leave the most basic start/stop commands here, and will add more to this post when I have the environment back up and running.

Quick Command Cheat-Sheet

Check what’s registered/running

Show all VMs
VBoxManage list vms

Show running VMs
VBoxManage list runningvms



Start up a VM
VBoxManage startvm “your_vm” &

Start up a headless VM (no GUI)
VBoxHeadless -startvm “your_vm” &

Hibernate a VM
VBoxManage controlvm “your_vm” savestate

ACPI power down signal
VBoxManage controlvm “your_vm” acpipowerbutton

Poweroff a VM (pull the plug)
VBoxManage controlvm “your_vm” poweroff


Cleaning House

Unregister and Delete a VM
VBoxManage unregistervm “your_vm” –delete



Notepad++ is a free and open-source text editor for Windows, and a great substitute for the standard text editor that ships with Windows. It’s packed with features, and supports 3rd party plugins — the following are some notes about features I find come in handy.

I have limited experience with keyboard-driven editors like Vim and Emacs. These may cover the same functionality, and more — I don’t really have the experience to say. In any case, I think NP++ strikes a nice balance between features and accessibility in a Windows environment.


Block Editing

To highlight 2D blocks of characters, hold SHIFT + ALT and move the cursor with the arrow keys. Alternatively, hold ALT, and then click and drag the mouse cursor. You can copy and paste blocks, and insert and delete characters along multiple lines. Two use cases are 1) to insert new columns or ASCII separators into tables, or comment out a multi-line block of code, and 2) to block-copy and paste boxes and other shapes in ASCII diagrams.

npp_block_edit1 npp_block_edit


Find (in files)

Notepad++ allows for searching within the current document, among all currently opened docs, and within a directory path. There are three search modes: one that uses normal / literal words and phrases, one with an extended parsing mode that includes escaped characters, and one with Regular Expressions. For in-depth log analysis, you are better off using the proper command line tools,  but Notepad++ can still be useful for quick searches. My experience is that it has trouble with stability when opening and searching 100+ megabyte files.

The search results are shown in a horizontal pane. Double-click a result line to open the document at that line number. These results can also be copied and pasted into a new document and be searched through.

npp_search1 npp_search2


Configure Notepad++ to use spaces instead of tab characters for Python only

Select Settings -> Preferences and choose Tab Settings.

Select from the list box, select ‘[Default]‘ :

  • Uncheck ‘Replace by space

From the list box, select ‘python‘ :

  • Uncheck ‘Use default value
  • Set tab size to your preference (I use 4)
  • Check ‘replace by space

Close the settings box. This change takes effect immediately, but does not apply retroactively. To convert tabs to spaces in an existing py source file, you can select Edit -> Blank Operations -> TAB to Space.


Enable the Documents sidebar

(If you do not see the options below, try upgrading to the latest version of Notepad++. I have this set up in v6.9.2 as of 13/Aug/2016.)

The file list can be enabled here (Settings -> Preferences -> General -> Document List Panel: Check Show. Optionally disable extension column for a cleaner look.) :



Save document state on exit

This can be configured within Settings -> Preferences -> Backup.

  • Check Remember current session for next launch.
  • Check Enable session snapshot and periodic backup.

Unsaved files will be saved to the below directory when you exit NPP. They will be restored when you start the program again.


Some caveats with this feature:

  • If Notepad++ crashes, the files may remain there without being cleaned up. They could also be corrupted and lost if it can’t recover gracefully (let’s say you did a Find in Files search and Notepad++ croaked in the process).
  • Be careful not to leave sensitive notes in unsaved files when you close Notepad++, because they will be saved straight to disk with no encryption.

(edit 10/30/16: wording)

Input Sharing Software

These programs that allow you to share keyboard and mouse input across multiple computers over the LAN, without requiring any additional hardware. Input sharing fills a certain niche that might not be covered entirely by a KVM switch or remote desktop.

I’ve only had experience with Synergy, but I hope to try out the other ones when I have some time and a use case to test them out.



When everything is working correctly, Synergy lets you control Windows / Mac / Linux machines from a single system over your LAN. Sharing input across different operating systems is not an easy task though, and sometimes problems happen that require restarting the service and/or entire systems.

I think overall stability has gotten better since I last tried it a few years ago. There are sometimes conflicts with mouse input in games —  here is a Github thread on some known issues. Behavior is more predictable in a serious work environment.

Synergy’s licensing and status is a little confusing. There used to be a free and a premium/pro version, but now, my understanding is that it’s technically open-source and free, but Windows binaries are behind a paywall. You can build from source however — I think?

Note: My Synergy version is 1.7.6.


As said above, I have not tried the programs below, but I keep track of them in case I have a use case for Windows-only input sharing.


Mouse Without Borders

Microsoft’s Mouse Without Borders provides input-sharing across up to four Windows systems.


Input Director

Input Director seems to get favorable comparisons against Synergy if you only need to control Windows machines. Will add any thoughts if I have a use case for it. Free for non-commercial use.



Multiplicity is Windows-only and paid software.



ShareMouse works with Windows and Mac. There are free and paid versions.


(e:10/Jun/2017: Wording)


AutoHotKey is a free and open-source macro utility for Windows. It can help greatly with automating repetitive, one-off tasks, especially with GUI programs that don’t have built-in CLI automation or batch scripting. Your mileage may vary, as not all programs will accept the virtual input events that AHK generates. That said, it’s quite nice when everything works.


Quick scripting notes

; comments begin with a semicolon
    ; Trigger label example for key input
    ; ^ = CTRL
    ; ! = ALT
    ; q = the 'Q' key

    ; Let's send some keyboard input with some delays.
    Send,Let's cut and paste.
    Sleep, 250
    Send,{Shift Down}{Home}{Shift Up}
    Sleep, 250
    Send,{Control Down}x{Control Up}
    Sleep, 250
    Sleep, 250
    Send,{Control Down}v{Control Up}
    Sleep, 250

    ; Finish a block with 'Return'


Transfer “Untitled” Notepad text to Notepad++

My old job required me to take notes often, and quickly, during troubleshooting sessions. Here is a script I used at the end of the day to transfer the contents of all untitled Notepad instances to Notepad++, a program that can be configured to autosave everything upon closing.

Maybe this was a bad habit, and I should have just typed stuff into NP++ directly, but I found it easier while on calls / remote sessions to just hit Win+R, type notepad, and start typing away. I set NP++ as the default program for txt files, so I could tell at a glance that if something was written in Notepad, then it was fresh information from that day.

I wasn’t able to make this script perfect (it’s time-sensitive: it will screw up if your system is lagging due to slow disk access, for example), and I have neither AuthoHotKey nor Notepad++ at my current job, so this is provided as-is with no warranty.

; copy all notepad files called "Untitled" to new files in notepad++ which
; will autosave upon closure. Based on AHK help file examples.
; v1.3 2016/19/Feb

    ; Go no further if Notepad++ is not running.
    IfWinNotExist ahk_class Notepad++
        MsgBox, Notepad++ process not found.
    npp_is_running := 1

    ; Confirm run
    MsgBox, 4, , Copy contents of all "Untitled - Notepad" instances to Notepad++? This will overwrite your clipboard state. Do not execute if a remote desktop session is running.
    IfMsgBox, NO, Return

    ; Get a list of all windows
    WinGet, id, list,,, Program Manager
    ; Iterate through windows
    Loop, %id%
        ; If Notepad++ crashed or something, stop.
        IfWinNotExist ahk_class Notepad++
            npp_is_running := 0

        ; Right now this will jump focus to every window.
        ; WIP: There must be a way to skip over programs that aren't "Untitled - Notepad".
        this_id := id%A_Index%
        WinActivate, ahk_id %this_id%
        WinGetClass, this_class, ahk_id %this_id%
        WinGetTitle, this_title, ahk_id %this_id%
        ; Work on this window if it's "Untitled - Notepad"
        if (this_title="Untitled - Notepad")
            ; Sleep ten seconds.
            ; Adjust appropriately to match the performance of your PC.
            ; (Mine would be crawling by the end of the day.)
            Sleep, 10000
            ; Select all
            Send, {Ctrl Down}a{Ctrl Up}
            ; Cut
            Send, {Ctrl Down}x{Ctrl Up}
            ; Close window
            Send, {Alt Down}{F4}{Alt Up}
            ; Switch to Notepad++
            WinActivate, ahk_class Notepad++
            WinWaitActive, ahk_class Notepad++
            ; Sleep half a second 
            ; Increase if your PC is sloooowwwww
            Sleep, 500

            ; New Notepad++ tab
            Send, {Ctrl Down}n{Ctrl Up}
            ; Paste
            Send, {Ctrl Down}v{Ctrl Up}
    if npp_is_running = 0
        MsgBox, Notepad++ process not found.
    ; Switch focus to Notepad++ upon completion
    WinActivate, ahk_class Notepad++
    WinWaitActive, ahk_class Notepad++


(e: 15/Sept/2016: Formatting)
(e: 27/Nov/2016: Notepad to Notepad++ transfer script)


GraphicsGale is a lightweight pixel art and animation program for Windows. Originally split between a paid and freeware version, the program is now 100% freeware.

One of the best features of GraphicGale is that it supports hotkey bindings for most editing commands. For example, here are some bindings I have configured — while not the most ergonomic layout, it’s burned into my muscle memory at this point:

* Frame *
Add                       : Insert
Insert into Left          : Shift + Insert
Duplicate                 : Home
Delete                    : End
Forward Frame             : X
Back Frame                : Z

* Layer *
Next Layer                : Shift + Up Arrow
Previous Layer            : Shift + Down Arrow
Reverse Visibility        : Shift + Right Arrow
Reverse Vis. w/ Same Name : Ctrl + Shift + Right Arrow

* Palette *
Swap Color                : /

* Edit *
Paste New Image           : Ctrl + Shift + V

* View *
Zoom in                   : W
Zoom out                  : S
Zoom in (Resize window)   : Shift + W
Zoom out (Resize window)  : Shift + S
Grid                      : G
Snap (to grid)            : B
Frame                     : 1
Layer                     : 2
Palette                   : 3
Preview                   : 4
Loupe                     : 5

* Image *
Flip Horizontal           : Shift + H
Flip Vertical             : Shift + V
Rotate by 90 Degrees      : Shift + R
Count Colors Used         : Shift + C

* All Frames *
Rotate                    : Ctrl + Shift + R
Crop                      : Crtl + /
Adjust Color              : Shift + A
Color Depth               : Shift + Z

The program is pretty reliable and I have stuck with it in spite of a few issues:

  • As far as I can tell, as of V2.03.21, there is no import/export settings feature. If you move to a new PC, you have to export a registry key from your old OS and import it into your new OS, or else configure all the shortcuts by hand again. GraphicsGale comes with only basic shortcut keys defined by default, so it’s not uncommon for a user to come up with their own keybindings for their specific workflow. (Update — As of July 4 2017, a portable version is also available which writes configuration to a file.)
  • Resource footprint is very light under normal circumstances, but performance does not scale well with larger image files.
    • Alpha channels can bog down performance on big images. If you don’t need alpha transparency on the image you’re working on, select ‘Image -> Delete Alpha Channel’. ‘Print Screen’ captures of the Desktop often have an unnecessary alpha layer.

Here is the procedure for exporting and importing shortcuts from the Windows Registry:

I’ll write some more here if I can think of anything additional to add. Also, here is a post about defining alpha channel sprite masks.

(e 22/Jun/2017: wording; GraphicsGale is now Freeware.)
(e 23/Jun/2017: added my hotkey binding scheme.)
(e 8/Jul/2017: performance note re: alpha channel on large images.)
(e 18/Jul/2017: I missed that there is now a portable version with its own config file.)

Sound Effect generators: sfxr and its forks

Here are some free and easy-to-use tools for constructing non-realistic sound effects in games. For now, this is mainly about DrPetter’s sfxr and some forks of the program.


sfxr by DrPetter is a free and open-source tool for generating simple video game sound effects. Designed for game jams, it provides a lot of quick and accessible features for building wave file samples from primitive waveforms. There are seven pre-defined template generators (pickup, shoot, explosion, etc), one purely random generator, one mutator option, and several sliders to control specific parameters of the sound effect.

sfxr is used most often in smaller indie and retro games, and quick usage of the template generators is often easy to spot. That said, you can use sfxr to produce basic WAV samples, then refine them in other editors like Audacity or tracker programs.

sfxr Fork with CLI support

todo – investigate this fork with CLI batch export support.


Bfxr by increpare is a more powerful fork of sfxr, runnable in a browser or as an Adobe AIR application.


Chiptone is a browser-based, WIP sound effect editor by SFB games. Like Bfxr, it expands significantly on the kinds of sounds that can be produced. The interface is more fleshed out and less spartan than that of the *xfr’s.

usfxr for Unity

usfxr by zeh is a fork for Unity that can play back sound effects on-demand, without requiring exporting to WAV. I haven’t gotten into the Unity ecosystem, but being able to make subtle differences in SFX without needing to export all variations of the sound as WAV files is pretty appealing.


edit 30/Aug/2016 – added Chiptone

WikidPad 2.2 Administration Notes

WikidPad is an open-source Desktop Wiki that I’ve used to consolidate personal notes. This post describes some adjustments to WikidPad’s default settings that I prefer, and some quick housecleaning and formatting reminders.

I’m using WikidPad version 2.2 for Windows.

(Note: As of Sept/2017, I’m migrating my notes from WikidPad over to Zim. I’ll keep this post up, but future additions are unlikely.)

The main thing you need to know to get started with the program is that CamelCase words and phrases enclosed in [square brackets] will act as links to new pages. Press Ctrl+Shift+Space to toggle between the monospace Editor Mode and the more readable Viewer Mode. Changes autosave periodically.

One weakness of the program is that the larger a page is, the longer it takes Editor Mode to apply all formatting. Long pieces of monospace text are probably better suited to another program, unless you are proactive in breaking up your notes into subsections.

1: Initial Setup of WikidPad and Wikis

Initial Post-Install Configuration of the program

Enable web broswer-style middle-click to close page tabs

  • From the menu bar, select Extra -> Options -> Mouse.
  • Set Middle Click on Tab to Close Tab.


Do not add spaces between CamelCase words in page titles

Do this if you are annoyed by “CamelCase” words becoming “Camel Case” in the page title. Existing pages with spaces will not be affected, but newly made pages will not have spaces.

  • From menu bar, select Extra -> Options -> Current Wiki -> Headings.
  • Set Wiki word to heading to As is.


To enable CTRL+F Finding in the Viewer: Change the preview renderer to Internet Explorer.

The built-in renderer does not support CTRL+F finding on a single page. You can use IE instead:

  • From the menu bar, select Extra -> Options… -> HTML Preview/Export.
  • Set Preview Renderer to IE.
  • Click OK and restart WikidPad.

I’ve had some intermittent issues with the IE renderer showing a 404 Error when switching to Viewer Mode. Toggling modes quickly or refreshing the page clears it.


Initial Setup of a Wiki

Disable CamelCase linked words

By default, CamelCase words will automatically be wiki-links. This is convenient, but may be a problem if you work with terminology that involves this kind of casing often.

  • Add this to your WikiSettings node: [global.camelCaseWordsEnabled: false]


Set the background color to something off-white

  • Add this to WikiSettings[global.html.bgcolor: _your_color_here_ ]

You can use a predefined color (ex: WHEAT), or HTML hex color format (ex: #F5F5FF)See Format -> Color Name for a list of predefined colors.

Press CTRL+S in Editor Mode to push the color change out immediately.

  • You can also change text color, if desired: [global.html.textcolor: BLACK]


2: Housecleaning

Deleting parentless nodes

These are pages that are not linked to in any other page.

  • When in Editor Mode, hold Ctrl+Shift+Up for a list of articles that have no parent/child link relationship. A small dialog box will appear.
  • Double-click a node to open it up in the editor to check if anything you want to keep is in there.
  • Ctrl+click to highlight the nodes you wish to remove. WikidPad won’t allow you to delete the top-level root node.
  • Click Delete.



3: Formatting And Media

Insert monospace font

<code>Use the HTML code tag.</code>

Use the HTML code tag.

Use a different font size

<p style=”font-size:11px”>You can use CSS inside of tags.</p>

<code style=”font-size:11px”>Also works with the <code> tags.</code>


Insert non-trimmed whitespace into <code> blocks

Use ‘&nbsp;‘ (non-blocking space)

1 2  3   4    5     6



Here is an example of the table syntax. Note that in order to define an empty cell, there needs to be at least one text character present.

3|6| |12



Add a real HTTP hyperlink

“http://” will make a link clickable. You can also use the HTML anchor tag.

Not clickable:

Clickable: or

<a href=””>Anchor example</a>


Add a picture

WikidPad uses a file store to keep track of media in a given wiki — see here for more details. You can add files via drag-and-drop, or you can place them in the file store manually and then create references in your nodes. Here is the syntax for linking from the file store:




You can use HTML div align tags with external renderers or in exported HTML Wikis. The internal renderer may have issues processing alignment tags.

<div align=center>Text In The Middle</div>


Add an automated Table of Contents to a page

The [:toc:] tag in Viewer Mode expands to a linked table of contents based on the page’s headers.

Be careful about inserting formatting and HTML tags within the headers, as they will be repeated verbatim in the table of contents. For example, if you start an HMTL tag within a header, you need to close it on that same line.

(e 17/Sept/2017: Rewording. Added note that future edits to this post are unlikely.)

Platformer Project: Plans vs Reality

I’ve been fleshing out an idea for an action-platformer over the past couple of months.

I may have made a mistake in planning too much before I even have a working engine prototype. My ideas seem fairly solid in my head and in my graphical mockups, but that don’t mean nothin’ until I can come up with tangible examples. The only way to truly find out if my plans can stand up is to make it real.

Part of the holdup has been down to me reading up on Python and doing the Python Codecademy course, and testing some different media frameworks and game engines. (Of course, procrastination, laziness, playing other video games, sometimes actually being busy, and occasionally just getting sick of the project are also playing their part.)

I’ve decided to commit to a free and cross-platform framework called LÖVE (or love2d) because it’s easy to dive into and the API is well-documented. It’s really impressive software that fills the 2D game / rapid prototyping / game jam niche very well.  My initial tests on Fedora 23 are very good, and I’m hoping to check out the Raspberry Pi port and see if I can get NTSC composite output for my game — it would be pretty awesome to actually support NTSC 4:3 on a real CRT, and not just the typical scanline shader effects that some retro games use. In any case, major kudos to the developers of LÖVE for making a solid product.

Before venturing too far into development, I need to read up on Lua, the language and embedded VM environment that LÖVE provides for game logic.

Some of my fears while fleshing out this idea:

  • It’s a retro pixel art platformer, and everyone is vehemently sick of those now. I find the format easy to work with and to do mockups in.
  • I want a very narrow set of actions and attacks, and to explore them in various ways. With the exception of health extensions, what you start with is essentially what you end with. I could see players rejecting this as a lack of features.
  • I can probably handle SFX, but I have no music resources.
  • From a long-term perspective, this is probably a bad self-investment because it’s likely not going to take me anywhere. But I can’t get the idea out of my head. I want this thing to be a reality.

Well, enough with the gloom. I’ll post some more about the project once I have something tangible to report. In the meantime, I’m drafting up some articles about some different platformers, but these will take some time to produce as I want to take screenshots and make some animations to illustrate certain points.

Raspberry Pi 2 Composite video

This is a note-to-self on outputting Raspberry Pi 2 (RPi) audio/video to CRT NTSC televisions with Raspbian OS via NOOBS. This was much easier than I thought it was going to be — the Retropie distribution even worked immediately.

RPi 2 combines analog audio and video onto the same port. You need a TRRS cable with the correct pinout that splits into yellow, white and red cables — a normal single yellow cable won’t work. There is a Zune AV cable which is known to work, but it’s pretty expensive and there are also much cheaper cables available as well.

Plug the TRRS cable in and make sure HDMI is unplugged, and then power up the RPI 2. If it doesn’t work immediately, Try making the following changes to the boot config (you can SSH into the RPi 2 over your LAN while testing) :

sudo nano /boot/config.txt

  • Comment out hdmi_force_hotplug=1.
  • NOOBS may add a second instance of this line at the bottom of the config file, comment that out as well. Save and exit nano, and reboot.

If you’re hunting for an old glass tube television, check whether you can change the video input from the front control panel. Some models require a remote control to do that and access the menu.



RPi post about RCA:

Using an alligator pin for video out:

Element14 forum thread on RPi 2 RCA output:

Sprite masking with alpha channels in GraphicsGale (edit: added Python + Pillow script)

Edit: I made a quick-and-dirty Python 3 / Pillow script for applying color key-style alpha channel masks, it can be grabbed here.

I’ve been messing around with Kivy lately, and it seems that there is not a direct method of doing color key transparency in Kivy + OpenGL. No problem: alpha transparency is much more powerful and can be used for my archaic purposes.


I haven’t worked much with alpha channels in the art package that I use, GraphicsGale. The best solution is probably to loop through the pixels of the texture upon loading or refreshing it in your program, and apply alpha if the color key RGB is detected. In any case, here is how to apply an alpha channel in a color key stencil fashion to 24bpp Full Color PNGs in GraphicsGale:

  • Choose the color picker tool (blue square with a yellow oval) and click on an empty / transparent space in your sprite sheet.


  • Choose View -> Make Alpha Channel…
  • Create From: Current Selection
  • Source: (should be the current file — double check)
  • Check Invert Selection and click OK.
  • When you save the file, use Save As… and ensure that “With Alpha Channel” is checked.

You should now have a stencil alpha layer which you can toggle in GraphicsGale with the “a” button on the current layer. If you’ve tweaked art and need to remake the alpha layer, goto Image -> Delete Alpha Channel and then repeat the steps above.



  • Alpha channel notes from an artist working with GraphicsGale and Adventure Game Studio. His example images have expired, unfortunately, but there is some interesting info about drawing in Opacity Mode.